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What is Software Testing? Types of Software Testing with Steps

Types of Software Testing

What Is Software Testing?

Software Testing is reviewing a software system or its component(s) to see whether it meets the specified criteria and identifying faults to ensure that the product, service, or system is dependable and functions as intended. 

Types of Software Testing

There are numerous types of software testing, which can be classified as follows:

  • Functional Testing
    • Unit Testing
    • Integration Testing
    • System Testing
      • Functional testing
      • Performance testing
      • Security testing
    • Acceptance Testing
  • Non-Functional Testing
    • Performance testing
    • Security testing
    • Usability testing
  • Structural Testing
    • White-box testing
    • Black-box testing
    • Gray-box testing
  • Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) Testing
    • Acceptance Test-Driven Development (ATDD)
    • Specification by Example (SBE)
  • Maintenance Testing
    • Regression testing
    • Smoke testing

1. Functional Testing

Functional testing analyzes program functionality to ensure that it operates as intended and meets the requirements.

Unit Testing

Unit testing focuses on components of the software or individual units. Developers do the testing process, which entails building test cases for specific code units to check that they work as intended. Unit testing aids in the early detection of problems and can save time and resources by discovering errors before they become more complex and challenging to solve.

Integration Testing

Integration testing focuses on testing the interactions between different components or systems of the software. The testing is done after the unit testing and helps ensure that various software components work as intended. 

System Testing

System testing focuses on testing the entire software system as a whole. System testing can include 

 - Functional testing

This is the testing of the functionality of a software application. It is done to ensure that the application behaves as intended and meets the requirements.

 - Performance testing

This is the testing of the performance of a software application. It is done to ensure that the application can handle the expected load and usage.

 - Security testing

This is the testing of the security of a software application. It is done to ensure that the application is secure and protected against potential threats.

Acceptance Testing

Users are involved in this testing. This testing focuses on evaluating the software from the end user's perspective. The testing is done before the release of the software and involves testing the requirements that the software must meet to be accepted by the end users.

2. Non-Functional Testing

Non-functional testing focuses on assessing performance, security, usability, and other characteristics not associated with software functionality.  

Performance testing

Performance testing focuses on assessing software's performance under various scenarios. This testing aims to ensure that the software can handle the expected workload and meet performance requirements such as response time and scalability. 

Security testing

Security testing focuses on evaluating the security of the software. This testing aims to ensure that the software is protected against threats related to security, such as data breaches, unauthorized access, and other security vulnerabilities.

Usability testing

Usability testing focuses on the ease of use and understandability of the software. This testing aims to understand the perspective of the end user.

3. Structural Testing

Structural testing focuses on examining the product's internal structure. It's often referred to as glass-box testing or clear-box testing. The purpose of structural testing is to guarantee that the program is correctly implemented and fits the requirements.

White-box testing

White-box testing focuses on assessing the internal structure of the software. It entails evaluating the software at the code level and necessitates a thorough understanding of the design and implementation of the product. White-box testing can comprise code coverage, control flow, and data flow testing.

Black-box testing

Black-box testing focuses on examining the exterior behavior of the software. It does not necessitate a thorough knowledge of the software's architecture or implementation. Testing for functional requirements, use cases, and scenarios are all examples of black-box testing.

Gray-Box Testing

Gray-box testing is a structural testing method that combines white-box and black-box testing. It entails evaluating the software at the code and exterior behavior levels. Testing for code coverage, control flow, data flow, functional requirements, use cases, and scenarios are all examples of gray-box testing.

4. Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) Testing

Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) focuses on software's behavior rather than its implementation. BDD is based on the notion that software should be designed according to the behavior that users expect. BDD aims to improve communication and collaboration between developers, testers, and end users. 

Acceptance Test-Driven Development (ATDD)

Acceptance Test-Driven Development (ATDD) is a BDD technique for ensuring that software meets the acceptance criteria established by stakeholders. It entails creating acceptance tests before developing code and then using these tests to steer the development process. The acceptance tests are designed in a natural language format that all stakeholders, including non-technical team members, can comprehend.

Specification by Example (SBE)

The SBE approach in BDD records software behavior concisely and clearly. It entails creating examples of how the program should behave in various contexts and then utilizing them to guide the development process. The examples are written in a natural language format that all stakeholders, including non-technical team members, readily understand.

5. Maintenance Testing

Maintenance testing is performed after the software's release. This testing ensures that the software continues functioning as intended after making changes. 

Regression testing

Regression testing ensures that adjustments and changes updated to the software have not started new errors or caused existing bugs to reappear. This testing is performed after new updates, or bug fixes have been introduced. It entails re-running a series of previously conducted tests to confirm that the software continues to function correctly.

Smoke testing

Smoke testing is a type of regression testing performed after changes to the software have been made. It entails executing a series of tests to evaluate if the software is working correctly and quickly. Smoke testing is generally performed before complete regression testing. The purpose of smoke testing is to detect any severe flaws in the software that prevents it from running correctly so that they can be rectified as soon as feasible.

Steps in Software Testing

The process of software testing typically includes the following steps:

  • Requirements analysis: This process entails examining and comprehending the software requirements, such as functional and performance requirements and acceptance criteria.
  • Test planning: The testing objectives, scope, and approach are specified at this step. A test plan is developed, which details the testing activities, techniques, resources, test timeline, and hazards. During this step, test cases and scripts are also built.
  • Test design: Based on the requirements and test plan, this process comprises developing test cases, test scripts, and test data. A test case is a collection of inputs, execution circumstances, and expected results used to test software.
  • Test environment setup: The test environment is set up and configured in this stage. This comprises installing the software, configuring the required hardware and software, and preparing the test data.
  • Test case execution: The test cases are done by running the scripts in this step, and the results are recorded. Errors or issues discovered during testing are reported and tracked for future development.
  • Test results analysis: This stage entails studying and identifying system error trends. The results are then scrutinized to confirm that the testing objectives are met.
  • Test closure: The testing operations are done, and the results are documented at this stage. The test environment has been discontinued, and all test data has been preserved.


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